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[LANDMARC] Deforestation status in Indonesia by Indri

I have never actually met Indri, who works for for about a year. She works remotely from her parents' home in Kalimantan, because the Corona pandemic started before I hired her. Indri is a quick learner and has a great personality, so he has done many online activities. However, her most significant contribution is the LANDMARC project. She wrote a very long report including deforestation data. I think it's interesting, so I paste it here. Deforestation in Indonesia is a topic that has attracted a lot of international attention. Deforestation is still going on, but the pace of deforestation seems to be slowing down after the international controversy over Kalimantan and palm oil a few years ago. An excerpt from her report is attached below.


Indonesia has lost 26.8 million ha of tree cover from 2002 to 2019, where 37% occurred in the humid primary forest. The tree cover lost in the primary forest is equivalent to a 17% reduction of total loss since 2000, contributing to the release of 10.9 Gt of CO2 emissions in this period (Global Forest Watch, 2021). A study in 2019 reported three significant deforestation causes in Indonesian forest between 2001 and 2016 (Austin et al., 2019): 1) large-scale oil palm and timber plantations, which together contributed more than two-fifths of nationwide deforestation, 2) conversion of forests to grasslands (pastures), which made up around one-fifth of total deforestation, and 3) small-scale agriculture and plantations, which also comprised one-fifth of national deforestation. In response to high deforestation, GOI relies on reforestation and afforestation to counterbalance deforestation rates, along with other measures such as fire prevention and the halting of new permit issuance for deforestation. In 2017-2018, 53.9 thousand ha of forest were recovered, while in 2018-2019, 31 thousand ha of forest were restored due to these reforestation efforts (BAPPENAS, 2020). These have successfully reduced net deforestation (gross deforestation – reforestation) in the last few years (KLHK, 2020b). See Table 5.

In the National Forestry Plan 2011-2030, MOEF pledged to rehabilitate 11.55 million ha of degraded forest and industrial forest by 2030. The government employs two strategies to achieve this target: intensive and incentive rehabilitation. While intensive rehabilitation is centred in priority areas and relies entirely on government funding (APBN) and government activities, its counterpart focuses on involving local communities in reward-based rehabilitation activities. The idea of incentive rehabilitation is to provide financial incentives for local communities that promote their commitment to maintaining and rehabilitating adjacent forestlands near their residence. Within 2015-2019, intensive and incentive methods have contributed to forest and land rehabilitation as vast as 308 thousand ha and 873 thousand ha, respectively (MOEF, 2020b).


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