2021: How is emission reduction strategy in Indonesia?

Hi again everyone!

I'm Indri from THINK-Research Team. I hope you and your family are doing well these days. We know that Indonesia became the first country in Southeast Asia to surpass one million Covid-19 cases and became the fourth country in Asia. I hope everything will be better soon!


If you already read the previous post, you could find these topics: How much is greenhouse gas emission from agriculture? or You can see "the world in 100 years time as climate change creates it". Now, I want to share about the emission reduction in Indonesia. I found a post from @greenpeace.id yesterday that Indonesian president called for the extraordinary steps to mitigate the climate change. He attended 2021 Climate Adaptation Summit (CAS) and stated four extraordinary steps:

  1. All countries should fulfill their national contribution to tackling climate change based on NDC (Nationally Determined Contribution). Indonesia has updated the NDC to increase the resilience and adaptation capacity.

  2. All potential society must be mobilised to raise awareness in migitating and controlling the climate change impacts. Indonesia involves the community to control climate change through the Climate Village Program which covers 20,000 villages in 2024.

  3. Strengthening the global partnerships, including capacity building cooperation with countries in the Pacific region. Developed countries must fulfill their commitments.

  4. Continuing the development of a green concept for a better world.


Some media released this news yesterday and some people gave comments and asked about the strategies of emission reduction in Indonesia. I did a literature review to know about decarbonisation last week and I found there are two long-terms projects in Indonesia related to climate change. They are RAN-API (National Action Plan for Climate Change Adaptation) and RAN-GRK (National Action Plan for Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions). Both projects are under BAPPENAS (The Ministry of National Development Planning). Since I have to learn about negative emission solution or decarbonisation, so I read some reports of RAN-GRK project. You could go to this link to check the brief result. This is the picture of emission reduction in Indonesia from 2015 to 2018:


The dark colour means more emission reduction. In 2018, light colour dominates the map which means less emission reduction. In the report, they divided the emission reduction strategies into some sectors. It can be seen in this picture:



The sectors are transportation, industry, energy, waste, land management, and coastal and ocean. There are subsectors for land management, such as agriculture, forestry, and peatland. I transportation, the strategies are focusing on ACTS (Area Traffic Control System) and PBN (Performance Base Navigation) for traffic, smart driving, BRT (bus rapid transit), and solar cell installation. In Industry, energy conservation and diversification, including process and technology modification are conducted. In energy sector, the strategies are focusing on fossil fuel substitution, energy efficiency, renewable energy installation (on-grid and off-grid). In waste management, there are some strategies, such as wastewater drainage and communal septic tank, recycling centre, and waste treatment.


Sectoral contribution in emission reduction can be seen below:

  1. Forestry: 81.70%

  2. Energy, transportation, and industry: 14.14%

  3. Agriculture: 3.04%

  4. Waste: 1.12%

In total, intensity of green house gas emission in 2018 was 48.26% decreasing from the 2018 baseline or 295 ton CO2e/billion IDR. I wrote about forest in borneo island in my previous post. Forest has a key role for environment and climate change. An analysis from The Nature Conservancy, WRI and others estimated that stopping deforestation,improving forestry practices, and restoring forests could remove 7 billion metric tons of CO2 annually or it would be as much as emission reduction from 1.5 billion cars (WRI, 2017) .


I will write about land management on my next post. So stay tune!

Also, you could check our projects and publications on this link to know more about climate change and sustainable energy.

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