Presently, Indonesia is the fourth most populous country and in 2012 was the seventh largest emitter of green-house gases (GHG). The country has high reliance on fossil fuel to meet its energy demand and deforestation and land use change contribute to a large proportion of these emissions. As a country of 17,000 islands, Indonesia is also vulnerable to the impact of climate change, especially through sea-level rise and high temperatures, which disproportionately affect the poorest communities.
In order to address climate change issues, the Government of Indonesia has set a -29% GHG emission reduction target by 2030 and promoting increasing clean energy utilization by 2025 when the share of renewable energy sources should reach 23%. One of those clean energies promoted is bioenergy. The Indonesian government has set a blending target for bioethanol and biodiesel by the same date (30% for biodiesel, 25% bioethanol) and on local levels, other forms of renewable energy such as biogas are also supported to some extent by the government.
To accelerate bioenergy utilization in Indonesia, a preliminary study has been conducted where Bali and East Java were selected. Udayana University, Stockholm Environment Institute and PT Sustainability and Resilience Co (su-re.co) within the framework of two research projects funded by the European Commission: GreenWin and TRANSrisk organized an international workshop on sustainability and resilience of bioenergy for climate change. The event furthermore benefited from the generous support of the Indonesia Climate Change Trust Fund (ICCTF) on behalf of Ministry of National Development Planning (BAPPENAS) of Republic Indonesia. It took place in Bali, on 11-13th May 2016, attended by 68 registered participants coming from background, local and national government, private sectors, non-government organizations (NGOs), academics, scientists and international experts.
Data were collected during field visits and focus group discussion (FGD) between stakeholders from different backgrounds and sectors, by discussing the potential for bioenergy development in Bali and East Java. Several qualitative tools such as H-form exercises have been used by the participants to analyze the risks and opportunities of bioenergy development pathways as well as potential co-benefits such as sustainable livelihoods and economic growth through green business possibilities with both climate change adaptation and mitigation benefits. Value chain analysis was also used to identify production processes for preferred bioenergy options available in Bali and East Java and the systemic barriers and enablers for their implementation. The workshop developed and shared ideas creating green business models, investment opportunities, and partnership on energy poverty eradication and resilient livelihood with bio-energy. The workshop also engaged the assessment of stakeholder network with climate change adaptation and mitigation pathways.
Improved sustainability assessment of bioenergy and on-the-ground evaluations are needed to guide priority setting for adaptation and mitigation of climate change with bioenergy in Bali and East Java.
The paper was presented in World Renewable Energy Conference 2016.