Bioenergy in Jembrana, Bali, Indonesia
Summary from field trip session, International Workshop on Sustainability and Resilience of Bioenergy for Climate Change: Scoping and Envisioning
In Jembrana, Bali, Indonesia, Brawantangi is a sub-village which has used the biomass stoves and kembangsari is a sub village using the biogas. The village welcomes the bioenergy project. The project is surprised that there are many people joining the field trip. It is a good start.
Forestry Department of Jembrana reported that biogas utilization is one of national plan in reducing emission from agriculture sector. In Bali there is bali clean energy programmes, which is integrated farming is one of them. The govt prefer biogas due to availability and feasibiltiy of cow manures. In bali they also used pig manures.
There are 134 biogas units in Jembrana in 2015. Biogas designs are fixed dome and floating dome, in Jembrana they use floating one. Everyday farmers collect the manures and installed to the installation which connects to the community kitchen for cooking. The integrated farming is connected with the biogas.
In Bali, there are almost 1000 biogas units. However, many from the govt does not working well. Problems are low aware in GHG emission, unsustainable program, bad smell, low economic level, not simple and low technical knowledge. Bali has big potential to develop biogas but the sustainability concern is needed.
Target of 1.01 of mT of GHG emission is national target from agriculture, biogas. Utilization of the biogas is for cooking in Jembrana, but the govt wants also to use for the electricity. From 7m3 of biogas installation, it can be used for 1 week cooking.
In integrated farming program, govt give community 20 cows to be developed, including for biogas. There is training from the govt, but it is not sustainable, because like the expert comes from Java and difficult for bali. Why some biogas don’t work in integrated farming program because of lack of monitoring from the govt, lacking capacity from the community and the community focus about the cow livestock. Also it is because the gas is difficult to distribute.
Local NGO namely Yayasan Rumah Energi (YRE) has their own approach to build biogas in Indonesia with Hivos. They use the fixed dome design. Biogas has been established since 1970s in Indonesia, but always failed, then we tried new approach. They just give to the community which need it. They asked the govt to reduce the subsidy for community to make the community pay for the biogas, this is the new approach.
Biogas project from hivos works with local partner with fixed dome design. Everyday the pig manures put on the dome. Now he has 5 pigs. However then it is not hivos, it is from govt but use the hivos system. It needs 6 hours to start producing gas and 50 kg manures. The slurry comes out and can be the fertilizer. In islamic boarding school in east java, they use human manures for biogas. The slurry is used for papaya cultivation, growing aquatic plants. 4m3 digester for 3-4 hours for 2 days. This case in visit produce less amount of biogas due to different structure with biogas design like the pipes form. There are 3 units from the govt in the sub village.but only 1 works because the rest has not enough pig to produce manures.
There is also biomass project from wood pellet using certain stoves. There are two types of biomass stoves; with blower (7 ons/1 hour cook) and without (1 kg/1.5 hour cook). People prefer without blower cause it is without gas. They think it is safer. The residues from wood pellet can be used for fertilizer. One day people used to spend 2 kg/day. They afford to pay 150-200k idr if has to buy the stoves. Now all are still subsidized. They are ok to pay 1500/kg wood pellet. The 20 selected community was chosen by village discussion. There is also one sample each spreaded in sub villages.