Continued from yesterday!
The project described a comparison between household waste, industrial waste from hotels and restaurants, waste from illegal dumping and branches and leaves as compost. None of the compost made from these four types of waste contained enough NPK (nitrogen, phosphate and potassium) to be sold as organic fertiliser, which meant that it had to be mixed with cattle manure. A further problem is the presence of high selenium levels from pigments used to print glass bottles and plastic containers. This means that even if a system process organic and inorganic waste together, there is still a problem. If the selenium is transferred from the inorganic waste to the organic waste during the processing stage, the processed residue cannot be sold as compost.
Tomato is growing on the compost made of human manure.
This is also a problem for running a business. To operate such a waste treatment plant, some income has to be attached to the waste treatment. One of the options is to sell the residues either as organic fertiliser mixed with cow dung or as a soil conditioner, but as mentioned above, the low NPK content and high serine content make it difficult to sell the residues.
Besides, Bali's waste treatment projects found that the management fees, known as tipping fees, were not charged to the national or local government. In fact, in some cases, the tipping fees were paid through private and public emissions trading schemes, from which revenues were diverted to the tipping fees.
Suppose it is difficult to sell the by-products of the waste and ask the government to pay for the management fee. In that case, the only options are to charge the management fee directly to the people who produce the waste, not to the government. Or, we sell indirect by-products such as carbon reduction credits or electricity from the energy produced by the waste disposal.
Also, I thought that there would be more and more necessary to create "blockchain-based emission trading", which is also necessary to have a mechanism to bring funds from outside Bali because the tourism industry has almost stopped in Bali. The most economically affected island in Indonesia, is inferior in funds, both public and private.