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Land-based mitigation technologies and practices (LMTs) are critical for achieving the Paris
Agreement’s aim of avoiding dangerous climate change by limiting the rise in average global
surface temperatures. We developed a detailed two-level classification and analysis of the barriers
to the adoption and scaling up of LMTs. The review suggests that afforestation/reforestation and
forest management are LMTs with wide application and high potential across all continents.
BECCS (bioenergy with carbon capture and storage) and biochar have a higher potential in
higher-income countries in the short term, due to the availability of technology, funding, and
low-cost biomass value chains. Although most LMTs can be cost-effective across multiple world
regions, limited knowledge concerning their implementation and insufficient financing appear to
be the main barriers to their large-scale deployment. Without considering gender and the rights of
marginalised and Indigenous Peoples, the large-scale deployment of LMTs can further aggravate
existing inequalities. Therefore, the social and institutional implications of LMTs need to be better
understood to improve their public acceptance and reduce negative impacts. An integrated system
approach is necessary to strike a balance between ambitious land-based mitigation targets and
socioeconomic and environmental goals.

Potentials and barriers to land-based mitigation technologies and practices (LMT

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