Today, at the European Commission's TIPPING+ meeting, we talked about three types of boundaries. There are official boundaries, functional boundaries and people's perceptions of local boundaries. The official ones are not only the national boundaries of villages and towns, but also the religious boundaries. The functional division is based on transportation and public services such as water and electricity. It doesn't seem easy to generalise, as people may have different perceptions, but living in an area for a long time, you can understand perceptional boundary.
For example, I live in Pererenan, which is officially a different village, but many people think it is a part of Canggu. And Canggu is very long and narrow, so functionally from a transport point of view, there is a big difference between inland and coastal Canggu.
In the TIPPING+ case, we are looking at the energy case of Bali and Banten, which has the oldest stone-end thermal power plant in Indonesia, and over 50% of the electricity is consumed elsewhere. Banten is the oldest coal power plant in Indonesia, and 50% of the electricity is consumed in other parts of the country, so there is an official division of Banten, but there is a much larger division of areas that use energy from Banten. Between the two, it is not easy to find out how people think about Banten or the division of the region by the power coming from Banten.
Incidentally, this is also common in surfing. The surf spot commonly known as Eco Beach is officially Matu Mejan Beach. For some reason, the older Japanese surfers call it Tahiti. Some groups call it Stair. I am also an older Japanese surfer and I call it Eco Beach (^^).