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[TIPPING+] the mainstream energy situation in Indonesia and Bali

Cynthia, who was mentioned in yesterday's blog, has summarised the mainstream energy situation in Indonesia and Bali for the TIPPING+ project. An excerpt of it is pasted below.

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Despite the emergence of climate change impacts in Indonesia, the country is seemingly moving in the opposite direction by heavily relying on fossil fuels (coal, oil, and natural gas) to support its economic growth. The country is recognised as the resourced-based economy (i.e., agriculture, forestry, fishery, and mining). These activities are expected to support the manufacturing industry (the biggest GDP contributor); however the productivity level and the growth rate are still relatively low. To maintain the economic growth, energy is unarguably a vital commodity. Fossil fuels (e.g., coal, oil and gas) are the main primary energy source of the country, for instance around 50% electricity comes from coal in 2019, followed by gas and oil, respectively. Under TIPPING+, Indonesia case study will focus on two different regions: Banten and Bali Province in electricity generation and biogas development to achieve positive tipping points towards clean energy.


Bali has seven power generation plants that are fossil fuel-based (i.e. coal, gas, and oil) in addition to some off-grid plants. This province has only one coal power plant since 2015. Since the energy demand is higher than the capacity of its energy supply, the region is then interconnected with Java grid (mainly from East Java). The energy demand mainly comes from tourism and agricultural activities. In fact, new coal power plants (2,000 MW) with clean coal technology (i.e., subcritical technology) in Banten will be operating for the next two decades to meet the electricity demand of Java and Bali Island.



Electricity Mix of Java-Bali Connection in 2018

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